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Modern examples

References (Go to photo credits)

  1. D. I. Bibikov [Marmots] Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1989 [In Russian]
  2. T. M. Bown, 1982. Ichnofossils and rhizoliths of the nearshore fluvial Jebel Qatrani Formation (Oligocene), Fayum Province, Egypt. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 40, 255-309.
  3. T. M. Bown, M. J. Kraus, 1983. Ichnofossils of the alluvial Willwood Formation (Lower Eocene), Bighorn Basin, Northwest Wyoming, U. S. A. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 43, 95-128.
  4. J. Burns, 1996. Review of Pleistocene zoogeography of prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) in western Canada with notes on their burrow architecture. In: Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals. K. M. Stewart, K. L. Seymour, eds. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 34-53.
  5. R. Damiani, S. Modesto, A. Yates, J. Neveling, 2003. Earliest evidence of cynodont burrowing. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 270, 1747-1751.
  6. Day, R.L., Laland, K.N. & Odling-Smee, F.J. 2003. Rethinking Adaptation: The Niche-Construction Perspective. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 46(1): 80-95
  7. L. G. Dinesman, L. E. Shternberg, 1967. [Animal burrows as witnesses of Holocene forest fires] Biulleten. Otdel biologicheskii. 4, 116-119. [In Russian]
  8. C. T. Gee, P. M. Sander, B. E. M. Petzelberger. A Miocene rodent nut cache in coastal dunes of the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. Palaeontology, 46(6). 1133-1149.
  9. E. M. Gomani, 1997. A crocodyliform from the Early Cretaceous dinosaur beds, northern Malawi. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 17(2), 280-294.
  10. G. H. Groenewald, 1991. Burrow casts from the Lystrosaurus-Procolophon Assemblage-zone, Karoo Sequence, South Africa. Koedoe, 34 (1), 13-22.
  11. G. H. Groenewald, J. Welman, J. A. MacEachern, 2001. Vertebrate burrow complexes from the Early Triassic Cynognathus zone (Driekoppen Formation, Beaufort Group) of the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Palaios, 16, 148-160.
  12. M. Y. Hassan, 1971. Xenohelix? libyensis, a new problematic form from the Maestrichtian of Kharga Oasis, south western desert of Egypt. Ma’had al Sahara al-misriyah (Desert Inst., U. A. R.) Bulletin, 19, 97-104.
  13. D. I. Hembree, S. T. Hasiotis, 2004. Casts of modern continental burrows as trace fossil analogs in the reconstruction of palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate. AAPG Annual Meeting
  14. D. I. Hembree, L. D. Martin, S. T. Hasiotis, 2004. Amphibian burrows and ephemeral ponds of the Lower Permian Speiser Shale, Kansas: evidence for seasonality in the mid-continent. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 203 (1-2), 127-152.
  15. R. C. Meyer, 1999. Helical burrows as a palaeoclimate response: Daimonelix by Palaeocastor. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 147, 291-298.
  16. M. F. Miller, S. T. Hasiotis, L. E. Babcock, J. L. Isbell, J. W. Collinson, 2001. Tetrapod and large burrows of uncertain origin in Triassic high paleolatitude floodplain deposits, Antarctica. Palaios, 16, 218-232.
  17. E. C. Olson, K. Bolles, 1975. Permo-Carboniferous fresh water burrows. Fieldiana, Geology. 33 (15), 271-290.
  18. O. J. Reichman and E. W. Seabloom, 2002. The role of pocket gophers as subterranean ecosystem engineers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (1), 44-49.
  19. G. Retallack, 1990. The work of dung beetles and its fossil record. In: A. J. Boucot, ed. Evolutionary paleobiology of behavior and coevolution. New York : Elsevier
  20. G. Retallack, 1991.Miocene paleosols and ape habitats of Pakistan and Kenya. New York : Oxford University Press
  21. G. Retallack, 2001. Soils of the past: an introduction to paleopedology. Oxford, Blackwell Science.
  22. M. M. Saffer, A. Dondas, O. Scaglia, F. I. Isla, 2004. Hallazgo de Paleocuevas con estructura interna realizadas por Mamíferos Extintos del Pleistoceno bonaerense. Paleontologia de Argentina. http://paleoweb.tripod.com.ar/notas03.htm
  23. G. B. Schultz, 1942. A review of the Daimonelix problem. University of Nebraska Studies in Science and Technology, 2, 1-30.
  24. R. W. Shone, 1978. Giant Cruziana from the Beaufort Group. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa. 81, 327-329.
  25. K. K. Smith and K. H. Redford, 1990. The anatomy and function of the feeding apparatus in two armadillos (Dasypoda): anatomy is not destiny. Journal of Zoology. 222, 27-47.
  26. R. M. H. Smith, 1987. Helical burrow casts of therapsid origin from the Beaufort Group (Permian) of South Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 60, 155-170.
  27. G. Stanistreet and B. R. Turner, 1979. “Giant Cruziana from the Beaufort Group” by R. W. Shone. Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa. 82, 371-375.
  28. R. O. Stephenson, 1974. Characteristics of wolf den sites. Juneau, Final Report, Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Projects W-17-2-W-16-6, Job 14.6R. Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
  29. C. Sundell, 1996. White River Oligocene mammalian burrows and advanced tooth wear in rodents.
  30. C. Sundell, 1997. Orellan burrows and associated fauna from Converse Co., Wy.
  31. H. Toots, 1963. Helical burrows as fossil movement patterns. Contributions to Geology. 2 (2), 129-134.
  32. W. Turnbull, 1970. A fossil carnivore den. Fieldiana. 19, 4-5
  33. M. R. Voorhies, 1975. Vertebrate burrows. In: The study of trace fossils. R. W. Frey, ed. Springer-Verlag, New York. 325-350.

Photo credits Back to References

Plesiosaur gastroliths. M. J. Everhart www.oceansofkansas.com/Gastro2.html

Coprolite from the collections of the Canadian Museum of Nature, NMC 40750. David Guedo, 2000. http://www.carleton.ca/Museum/david/cop.html



Fossil examples

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